Hunger, food insecurity, and challenges to promoting sustainable agriculture were all major development roadblocks even before the COVID-19 pandemic. Most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not on track to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2), “end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.” While national policies are the key to reversing this trend, donors have a critical role to play by providing official development assistance (ODA), technical assistance, and by financing global public goods. Improving the volume, impact, and efficiency of ODA for agricultural development (AgDev) is critical for achieving SDG 2, especially targets SDG 2.3 (double smallholder productivity and incomes) and 2.4 (ensuring production systems are environmentally sustainable). The AgDev financing gap is particularly large for smallholder farmers.
This study analyzes the overall ecosystem of global grants and concessional loans for AgDev to better understand key trends in ODA flows, how well this ecosystem is working, and how its effectiveness, impact, and efficiency could be improved to accelerate the progress of LMICs towards achieving SDG 2. The research team interviewed stakeholders from a wide variety of backgrounds (e.g. government, global AgDev agencies, researchers, civil society, and the private sector) and geographies (including LMICs).
- Identifies ways in which the four leading multilateral AgDev financiers–the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP), the African Development Fund (AfDF), and the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA)–can work more effectively in achieving SDG 2
- Provides an understanding of their financing approaches, governance, impact, strengths, and weaknesses.
The study aims to contribute to a stronger ecosystem for AgDev financing, which ultimately will help to address major challenges faced by smallholder farmers.
This project is a collaboration between Duke University’s World Food Policy Center (WFPC), Open Consultants, and the Center for Policy Impact in Global Health (CPIGH) in the Duke Global Health Institute.